References

  1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on Intraoral/Perioral Piercing and Oral Jewelry/Accessories. 2011. Accessed April 21, 2014.
  2. American Dental Association. Oral Health Topics. Oral Piercings. ADA Statement on Intraoral/Perioral Piercing and Tongue Splitting. Accessed May 14, 2015.
  3. American Dental Association. Healthy mouth series, Oral piercings fact sheet. (n.d.). Accessed April 21, 2014.
  4. Academy of General Dentistry. Dentists Tell Athletes Keep the Mouthguard, Take Out the Barbell. January 2012. Accessed April 21, 2014.
  5. Bagnall S. Oral piercing and dental complications. Vital. 2011 Winter; 9(1): 20-22.
  6. Fehrenbach MJ. Tongue piercing and potential oral complications. J Dent Hyg. 1998 Winter;72(1):23-25.
  7. Francu LL, Calin DL. Lingual piercing: dental anatomical changes induced by trauma and abrasion. Romanian J of Functional & Clinical, Macro- & Microscopica. 2012 Jan; 11(1): 74-77.
  8. Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. Complications of oral and peri-oral piercings: a summary of case reports. Int J Dent Hyg. 2011 May;9(2):101-109.
  9. Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. The prevalence of oral and peri-oral piercings in young adults: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):223-228.
  10. Herskovitz MY1, Goldsher D, Finkelstein R, et al. Multiple brain abscesses associated with tongue piercing. Arch Neurol. 2009 Oct;66(10):1292.
  11. Holbrook J, Minocha J, Laumann A. Body piercing: complications and prevention of health risks. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2012 Feb 1;13(1):1-17.
  12. Kapferer I, et.al. Biofilm formation on oral piercings. J Stomat Occ Med. 2010 Mar; 3:171-176.
  13. Lakhan SE, Harle L. Fatal fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis secondary to tongue piercing in an immunocompetent adult: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2008 Nov 20;2:356.
  14. López-Jornet P1, Camacho-Alonso F. Oral and dental complications of intra-oral piercing. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Nov;39(5):767-769.
  15. López-Jornet P1, Camacho-Alonso F. Oral and dental complications of intra-oral piercing. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Nov;39(5):767-769.
  16. Peticolas T, Tilliss TS, Cross-Poline GN. Oral and perioral piercing: a unique form of self-expression. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2000 Aug 15;1(3):30-46.
  17. Plessas A, Pepelassi E. Dental and periodontal complications of lip and tongue piercing: prevalence and influencing factors. Aust Dent J. 2012 Mar;57(1):71-78.
  18. Pramod RC, Suresh KV, Kadashetti V, Shivakumar KM, et al. Oral piercing: a risky fashion. J Educ Ethics Dent. 2012 July-Dec; 2(2): 56-60.
  19. Rethman J. Educate patients about oral piercing risks. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. 2012 Nov; 74. 16B.
  20. Silk H, Romano-Clarke G. The seven tenets to teen oral health. Contemp Peds. 2009 June; 26(6):52-59.
  21. Vieira EP, Ribeiro AL, Pinheiro Jde J, Alves Sde M Jr. Oral piercings: immediate and late complications. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Dec;69(12):3032-3037.
  22. Ziebolz D, Hildebrand A, Proff P, Rinke S, et al. Long-term effects of tongue piercing—a case control study. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Feb;16(1):231-237.