atypical odontalgia – Toothache-like pain for which no dental cause can be found.

arthromyalgia – Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome (TMD).27

burning mouth – A condition that elicits a burning sensation in the oral cavity.

burning mouth syndrome (BMS) – The International Association for the Study of Pain in 1994, defined pain as an “unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.”55 Synonyms for oral pain include: dysesthesia, (burning oral pain), glossodynia (painful tongue), glossophyrosis (burning tongue) orodynia (painful, burning mouth) and stomatodynia (burning mouth).2,15

disorder – A disturbance of function or structure, resulting from a genetic or embryologic failure in development or from exogenous factors such as poison, trauma or disease states.

dysgeusia – Alteration or distortion in taste perception.

gustation – Taste which is a chemical sense and involves taste sensations of sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami (a pleasant savory taste). All other flavors are combinations of the five primary taste sensations but also involve olfactory and sensory sensations.

hypogeusia – Gustatory hyposensitivity - reduced ability to taste.

mucocutaneous dysesthesias – A heterogeneous group of disorders including unexplained cutaneous pain and other sensory syndromes that can affect any body region but tend to be localized to the scalp, face and perineum.

neuropathic pain – Complex, chronic pain that usually is accompanied by tissue injury. The nerve fibers may be damaged, dysfunctional or injured.

nociceptors – Specialized peripheral sensory neurons. These nociceptors alert us to potentially damaging stimuli on the skin or mucous membranes by detecting extremes in temperature, pressure and injury related chemicals and transducing these stimuli into long-ranging electrical signals that are relayed to the higher brain centers.11

olfaction – A sense of smell.

oral pruritic sensation – A feeling of “itchy” irritations in the oral tissues.

pruritis – A peculiar irritating sensation in the skin that arouses the desire to scratch.

somatosensory sensations – Subjective oral sensations of sandiness, roughness or dryness.

supertasters – Patients who have a heightened sense of taste and of smell. *Supertasters have a propensity toward BMS.

syndrome – The combination of several simultaneous signs and symptoms of varying intensities associated with a particular morbid process-which together constitute the picture of a disease or inherited anomaly.

taste phantom – Changes in taste and/or taste perception possibly due to temporary or permanent damage to the chorda tympani-the branch of cranial nerve VII that carries taste sensation from the taste buds of the anterior tongue to the brain.45