References

  1. Löe H, Theilade E, Jensen SB. Experimental gingivitis in man. J Periodontol. 1965 May-Jun;36:177-87. doi: 10.1902/jop.1965.36.3.177.
  2. Theilade E, Wright WH, Jensen SB, et al. Experimental gingivitis in man II. A longitudinal and bacteriological investigation. J Periodontal Res. 1966;1:1-13.
  3. Page RC. The etiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2002 May;23(5 Suppl):11-4.
  4. Lang NP. Commentary: bacteria play a critical role in the etiology of periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2014 Feb;85(2):211-3. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.130699.
  5. McClanahan SF, Beiswanger BB, Bartizek RD, et al. A comparison of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice and triclosan/copolymer dentifrice for efficacy in the reduction of gingivitis and gingival bleeding: Six-month clinical results. J Clin Dent. 1997;8(2 Spec No):39-45. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  6. Mankodi S, Bartizek RD, Winston JL, et al. Anti-gingivitis efficacy of a stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice: a controlled six-month clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Jan;32(1):75-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00639.x.
  7. Mallatt M, Mankodi S, Bauroth K, et al. A controlled 6-month clinical trial to study the effects of a stannous fluoride dentifrice on gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Sep;34(9):762-7. Epub 2007 Jul 23. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01109.x.
  8. Trombelli L, Farina R. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis. Minerva Stomatol. 2013 Jun;62(6):207-34.
  9. Trombelli L, Farina R, Silva C, et al. Plaque-induced gingivitis: Case definition and diagnostic considerations. J Clin Periodontol. 2018 Jun;45 Suppl 20:S44-S67. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12939.
  10. Trombelli L. Susceptibility to gingivitis: a way to predict periodontal disease? Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;2 Suppl 1:265-9.
  11. Ebersole JL, Nagarajan R, Akers D, et al. Targeted salivary biomarkers for discrimination of periodontal health and disease(s). Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2015 Aug 19;5:62. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2015.00062. eCollection 2015.
  12. Vijayalakshmi R, Geetha A, Ramakrishnan T, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in periodontal diseases: an overview. Indian J Dent Res. 2010 Oct-Dec;21(4):568-74. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.74226.
  13. Kolaczkowska E, Kubes P. Neutrophil recruitment and function in health and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Mar;13(3):159-75. doi: 10.1038/nri3399.
  14. Kumar V, Cotran RS, Robbin SL. Robbins Basic Pathology, 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA; Saunders; 2003.
  15. Aday AW, Ridker PM. Antiinflammatory therapy in clinical care: The CANTOS trial and beyond. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Jun 5;5:62. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00062. eCollection 2018.
  16. Lopez-Candales A, Hernández Burgos PM, Hernandez-Suarez DF, et al. Linking Chronic Inflammation with Cardiovascular Disease: From Normal Aging to the Metabolic Syndrome. J Nat Sci. 2017 Apr;3(4). pii: e341.
  17. Babalola DA, Omole F. Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes. J Pregnancy. 2010;2010:293439. doi: 10.1155/2010/293439. Epub 2010 Aug 12.
  18. Vasudevan R. Dental plaques: Microbial community of the oral cavity. J Microbiol Exp. 2017 Jan 31;4(1):00100. doi: 10.15406/jmen.2017.04.00100. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  19. Lang NP. Commentary: bacteria play a critical role in the etiology of periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2014 Feb;85(2):211-3. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.130699.
  20. Savitt ED, Socransky SS. Distribution of certain subgingival microbial species in selected periodontal conditions. J Periodontal Res. 1984 Mar;19(2):111-23.
  21. Lovegrove JM. Dental plaque revisited: bacteria associated with periodontal disease. J N Z Soc Periodontol. 2004;(87):7-21.
  22. Page RC, Schroeder HE. Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work. Lab Invest. 1976 Mar;34(3):235-49.
  23. Cekici A, Kantarci A, Hasturk H, et al. Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2014 Feb;64(1):57-80. doi: 10.1111/prd.12002.
  24. White DJ. Advantages of using antimicrobial toothpastes. New understandings regarding their effects on dental plaque virulence in gum disease. Catapult Education. 2017 Sep 14. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  25. Haught C, Xie S, Circello B, et al. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid virulence deactivation by stannous fluoride. J Clin Dent. 2016 Sep;27(3):84-89. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  26. Haught JC, Xie S, Circello B, et al. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid binding by antimicrobials used in oral care formulations. Am J Dent. 2016 Dec;29(6):328-332. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  27. Huggins T, Haught JC, Xie S, et al. Quantitation of endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid virulence using toll receptor report gene. Am J Dent. 2016 Dec;29(6):321-327. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  28. Hans M, Hans VM. Toll-like receptors and their dual role in periodontitis: a review. J Oral Sci. 2011 Sep;53(3):263-71.
  29. Ramji N, Baig A, Lawless MA, et al. Sustained antibacterial actions of a new stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 1):19-28. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  30. Otten MP, Busscher HJ, Abbas F, et al. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Oct;16(5):1435-42. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0648-2. Epub 2011 Dec 13.
  31. Bellamy PG, Harris R, Date RF, et al. In situ clinical evaluation of a stabilised, stannous fluoride dentifrice. Int Dent J. 2014 Mar;64 Suppl 1:43-50. doi: 10.1111/idj.12102.
  32. He T, Barker ML, Biesbrock AR, et al. A clinical study to assess the effect of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on hypersensitivity relative to a marketed sodium fluoride/triclosan control. J Clin Dent. 2014;25(2):13-8. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  33. Faller RV, Noble WH. Protection From Dental Erosion: All Fluorides are Not Equal. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2018 Mar;39(3):e13-e17.
  34. Sensabaugh C, Sagel ME. Stannous fluoride dentifrice with sodium hexametaphosphate: review of laboratory, clinical and practice-based data. J Dent Hyg. 2009 Spring;83(2):70-8. Epub 2009 Apr 1.
  35. Klukowska M, Haught JC, Xie S, et al. Clinical effect of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice in reducing plaque microbial virulence I: Microbiological and receptor cell findings. J Clin Dent. 2017 Jun;28(2):16-26. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  36. Cannon M, Khambe, Klukowska M, et al. Clinical effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice in reducing plaque microbial virulence II: Metabonomic changes. J Clin Dent. 2018 Mar;29(1):1-12. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  37. Klukowska M, Goyal CR, Khambe D, et al. Response of chronic gingivitis to hygiene therapy and experimental gingivitis. Clinical, microbiological and metabonomic changes. Am J Dent. 2015 Oct;28(5):273-84. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  38. Klukowska M, Ramji N, Combs C, et al. Subgingival uptake and retention of stannous fluoride from dentifrice: Gingival crevicular fluid concentration in sulci post-brushing. Am J Dent. 2018 Aug;31(4):184-188. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  39. Klukowska MA, Goyal C, Qaqish JG, et al. The effect of SnF2 dentifrice on virulence of subgingival plaque. J Dent Res 2018;97(Spec Iss A):Abstract 755. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  40. Baig A, He T. A novel dentifrice technology for advanced oral health protection: A review of technical and clinical data. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 1):4-11. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  41. He T, Farrell S. The case for stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice: An advanced formula designed for patient preference. J Clin Dent. 2017 Dec;28(4 Spec No B):B1-5. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  42. Manchir M. Toothpaste first to receive ADA seal for fighting erosion. ADA News. 2017 Nov 6. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  43. Beaglehole R, Benzian H, Crail J, et al. The oral health atlas: mapping a neglected global health issue. Cointrin, Switzerland. FDI World Dental Federation. 2009. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  44. Varela-Centelles P, Diz-Iglesias P, Estany-Gestal A, et al. Periodontitis Awareness Amongst the General Public: A Critical Systematic Review to Identify Gaps of Knowledge. J Periodontol. 2016 Apr;87(4):403-15. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150458. Epub 2015 Nov 6.
  45. Blicher B, Joshipura K, Eke P. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: a systematic review. J Dent Res. 2005 Oct;84(10):881-90. doi: 10.1177/154405910508401003.
  46. Tomar SL, Asma S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: findings from NHANES III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Periodontol. 2000 May;71(5):743-51. doi: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.5.743.
  47. Darby I. Drugs and gingival bleeding. Aust Prescr 2006 Dec 1;29:154-155. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  48. Markou E, Eleana B, Lazaros T, et al. The influence of sex steroid hormones on gingiva of women. Open Dent J. 2009 Jun 5;3:114-9. doi: 10.2174/1874210600903010114.
  49. Teeuw WJ, Kosho MX, Poland DC, et al. Periodontitis as a possible early sign of diabetes mellitus. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017 Jan 19;5(1):e000326. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000326. eCollection 2017.
  50. Daniel R, Gokulanathan S, Shanmugasundaram N, et al. Diabetes and periodontal disease. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012 Aug;4(Suppl 2):S280-2. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.100251.
  51. Scheie AA. Models of action of currently known chemical antiplaque agents other than chlorhexidine. J Dent Res 1989;68:1609-16.
  52. Cheng R. Breath and plaque prevention with cetylpyridinium chloride rinses: clinical meta-analysis. J Dent Res (AADR/IADR)2014;93 (Spec Iss A): Abstract 573. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  53. White DJ. An alcohol-free therapeutic mouthrinse with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)--the latest advance in preventive care: Crest Pro-Health Rinse. Am J Dent. 2005 Jul;18 Spec No:3A-8A.
  54. Garcia-Godoy F, Klukowska MA, Zhang YH, et al. Comparative bioavailability and antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinses in vitro and in vivo. Am J Dent. 2014 Aug;27(4):185-90.
  55. McBain AJ, Bartolo RG, Catrenich CE, et al. Effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash on the vitality and antimicrobial susceptibility of in vitro oral bacterial ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;69(8):4770-6.
  56. Santos A. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2012 Nov;39(11):1042-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01883.x. Epub 2012 Sep 7.
  57. Van Strydonck DA, Slot DE, Van der Welden U, et al. Effect of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients: A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2012 Nov;39(11):1042-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01883.x. Epub 2012 Sep 7.
  58. Panagakos FS, Volpe AR, Petrone ME, et al. Advanced oral antibacterial/anti-inflammatory technology: A comprehensive review of the clinical benefits of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. J Clin Dent. 2005;16 Suppl:S1-19.
  59. Blinkhorn A, Bartold PM, Cullinan MP, et al. Is there a role for triclosan/copolymer toothpaste in the management of periodontal disease? Br Dent J. 2009 Aug 8;207(3):117-25. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.669.
  60. Riley P, Lamont T. Triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrices for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 5;(12):CD010514. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010514.pub2.
  61. Friesen L, Goyal CR, Qaqish JG, et al. Comparative antiplaque effect of two antimicrobial dentifrices: Laboratory and clinical evaluations. J Clin Dent. 2017 Dec;28(4 Spec No B):B6-11. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  62. Sharma NC, He T, Barker ML, et al. Plaque control evaluation of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice compared to a triclosan dentifrice in a six-week trial. J Clin Dent. 2013;24(1):31-6. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  63. He T, Eusebio R, Goyal CR, et al. Assessment of the effects of a novel stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on gingivitis in a two-month positive-controlled clinical study. J Clin Dent. 2017 Dec;28(4 Spec No B):B12-16.
  64. He T, Barker ML, Biesbrock AR, et al. Digital plaque imaging evaluation of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice compared with a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice. Am J Dent. 2013 Dec;26(6):303-6.
  65. Saxer UP, Barbakow J, Yankell SL. New studies on estimated and actual toothbrushing times and dentifrice use. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(2):49-51.
  66. Slot DE, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema NAM, et al. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):187-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00557.x. Epub 2012 Jun 6.
  67. Poyato-Ferrera M, Segura-Egea JJ, Bullon-Fernandez P. Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal. Int J Dent Hyg. 2003 May;1(2):110-4. doi: 10.1034/j.1601-5037.2003.00018.x.
  68. Sternberg S. How many Americans floss their teeth? US News. 2016 May 2. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  69. Friesen L, He T, Eusebio R. Extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice. J Dent Res (AADR/IADR)2017;96 (Spec Iss A) Abstract 1941 Accessed February 27, 2019.
  70. Terezhalmy GT, Biesbrock AR, Farrell S, et al. Tooth whitening through the removal of extrinsic stain with two sodium hexametaphosphate-containing whitening dentifrices. Am J Dent. 2007 Oct;20(5):309-14.
  71. Gerlach RW, He T, Biesbrock AR. 0.454% stannous fluoride and tooth staining: Composite evidence. J Dent Res (AADR/IADR)2007;86 (Spec Iss). Abstract 691. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  72. Meza M, Parnell N. In-office research of stain removal efficacy of stannous fluoride dentifrice. J Dent Res2017;96 (Spec Iss A) Abstract 1533. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  73. Patel A. Management of peri-implant diseases. Dent Today. 2016 Oct;35(10):136-9.
  74. St. John S, Suszcynsky-Meister E, Shauchuk A, et al. Chemical effects of stannous and sodium fluoride dentifrices on titanium alloy surfaces. J Dent Res (AADR/IADR)2018;97 (Spec Iss A): Abstract 994. Accessed February 27, 2019.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available
Acknowledgement

To Ms. Shelly Campbell, RDH, MPH for writing assistance.