1. Dental caries became a matter of national concern in the ____________.
  1. According to the most recent National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999-2004), the following statement(s) is(are) correct.
  1. The earliest clinical evidence of an enamel lesion of dental caries is _______________.
  1. Radiographically, an early lesion of enamel caries appears as _______________.
  1. Caries activity usually begins _______________.
  1. The elements that dissociate during demineralization are _______________.
  1. A remineralized area of enamel is actually stronger than it was prior to acid attack due to which of the following?
  1. Which of the following statements regarding remineralization and demineralization processes is false?
  1. Human dentin (root surface) is approximately ____% (by volume) of mineral.
  1. Which of the following statements about enamel caries and root caries is true?
  1. Saliva is important for caries protection because it __________________.
  1. The NIH Caries Consensus Conference in 2001 reached which of the following conclusions?
  1. Fluoride plays a key role in the remineralization process by _______________.
  1. Duggal et al used a human intra-oral model to examine carbohydrate frequencies and the use of non-fluoride and fluoride toothpaste and found when a F-free toothpaste was used and carbohydrate frequency exceeded 3 times per day, significant demineralization occurred. When subjects used a fluoride-containing toothpaste, however, net demineralization was only seen when carbohydrate consumption exceeded _______________.
  1. One published study on digital radiography reports:
  1. The process of evidence-based dentistry includes:
  1. The most recent "Cochrane Review" on fluoride toothpaste that indicated it is clearly efficacious in preventing caries included data from.
  1. Leake, in an evidence-based review on root caries, stated that “Severity reaches over one lesion by age fifty, two lesions by age seventy, and just over _____ lesions for those seventy-five and older.
  1. The paradigm shift from a surgical model to a medical model for caries control as described by Steinberg includes:
  1. The “Cochrane Review” on Fluoride in Orthodontic Patients reported: