The facial landmarks can be visualized in Figure 2. These landmarks also form a benchmark for determining normal facial anatomy when performing an extraoral examination on a patient.1
Figure 2. Facial Landmarks.
Ala– Wing of the nose.
Inner canthus of the eye– The inner corner of the eye.
Labial commissures – Corners of the mouth.
Labiomental groove – Area that separates the lower lip and the chin.
Naris – Nostril.
Nasal septum – Vertical separation of the nasal cavity.
Nasiolabial sulcus – Groove that runs upward from the commissures of the mouth and the ala of the nose.
Nasion – Midline junction between the eyes just below the eyebrows.
Outer canthus of the eye – The outer corner of the eye.
Philtrum – Vertical groove or depression in the midline above the upper lip.
Tragus – Triangle flap of cartilage that is at the external opening of the ear.
Tubercle of the lip – Midline of the upper lip that has a small tissue projection.
Vermillion border – Where the skin and lips meet.
Vermillion zone – The reddish portion of the lips.