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Facial Landmarks

The facial landmarks can be visualized in Figure 2. These landmarks also form a benchmark for determining normal facial anatomy when performing an extraoral examination on a patient.1

Figure 2. Facial Landmarks.
facial landmarks
  • Ala – Wing of the nose.
  • Inner canthus of the eye – The inner corner of the eye.
  • Labial commissures – Corners of the mouth.
  • Labiomental groove – Area that separates the lower lip and the chin.
  • Naris – Nostril.
  • Nasal septum – Vertical separation of the nasal cavity.
  • Nasiolabial sulcus – Groove that runs upward from the commissures of the mouth and the ala of the nose.
  • Nasion – Midline junction between the eyes just below the eyebrows.
  • Outer canthus of the eye – The outer corner of the eye.
  • Philtrum – Vertical groove or depression in the midline above the upper lip.
  • Tragus – Triangle flap of cartilage that is at the external opening of the ear.
  • Tubercle of the lip – Midline of the upper lip that has a small tissue projection.
  • Vermillion border – Where the skin and lips meet.
  • Vermillion zone – The reddish portion of the lips.