The most studied factors that are protective of dental caries include systemic and topical fluoride, sugar substitutes, and tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste. A dental home is included as a protective factor in many caries-risk assessment models.
Using fluoride for the prevention and control of decay is proven to be both safe and effective. Caries risk assessment should include the dosage and frequency of fluoride exposure from various sources such as water, dietary supplements, rinses, toothpastes and other dietary sources of fluoride like beverages and processed food. The primary water source (which may not be the child’s home) should be identified and assessed for fluoride. Professional topical fluoride applications performed semiannually reduce caries risk.
- Oral Hygiene
At home oral hygiene and plaque control remain essential elements for oral health. Children’s teeth should be brushed twice daily with fluoridated toothpaste and a soft, age-appropriate sized toothbrush. Flossing should be initiated when adjacent tooth surfaces can not be cleansed by a toothbrush.
- Additional At-Home Preventive Measures
Use of antimicrobial rinses and sugar substitutes can help decrease a child’s risk for caries. Studies indicate that xylitol, a sugar substitute, can reduce mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva and can reduce dental caries in young children and adults, including children via their mothers.
- Dental Home
The dental home (regular periodic care by the same practitioner) benefits oral health through an emphasis on prevention and early intervention. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Dental Association recommend establishment of a dental home by a child’s first birthday.