Angular cheilitis: a common inflammatory condition affecting the corners of the mouth or oral commissures.
Cardiac dose of epinephrine: limiting the use of vasoconstrictor in local anesthetic to 0.04 mg or 2 cartridges of 1:100,000 epinephrine.
Co-morbidity: the simultaneous presence of two or more diseases or medical conditions in a patient.
Ecchymosis: a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath, typically caused by bruising.
Evidence-based dentistry (EBD): the integration of the dentist’s clinical expertise, the needs and preferences of the patient, and the most current, clinically relevant evidence. The three components are all considered during the decision-making process for patient care.3
Fibrinolysis: the enzymatic breakdown of fibrin.4
Infective endocarditis: infection within tissues lining the heart or within valves of the heart, caused by bacteria within the circulating blood that infect these cardiac issues.1
International Normalizing Ratio (INR): a system established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for reporting the results of blood coagulation (clotting) tests.
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ): exposed, necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region for at least 8 weeks in patients receiving an antiresorptive medication.
Osteoradionecrosis (ORNJ): similar to osteonecrosis of the jaw but caused by radiation to the head and neck.
Petechia: small, pinpoint collections of blood under the skin or mucous membrane.
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI): also known as periprosthetic infection, is an infection involving the joint prosthesis and surrounding tissue.5
Valvulopathy: a disorder of valve function causing a variety of cardiac disorders, such as arrhythmia, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and cardiogenic shock.1
Thrombocytopenia: medical term for a low blood platelet count.1